Kerala genetics

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Kerala genetics

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Home Departments and Services. The Genetics Department of the Lifeline Hospital, which was established inprovides the cutting edge technology and most advanced treatment options to parents worldwide. The Hospital has introduced revolutionized genomic treatment, the Next Generation Sequencing technology. Next Generation Sequencing for Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is cost effective and best with reduced errors. The tests carried out include Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD for the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation and the pre- implantation genetic screening PGSfor testing the overall chromosomal normalcy in embryos.

RGCS Reproductive Genetics and Cancer Solutions attached to the Lifeline Hospital is a state-of-the-art molecular diagnostic laboratory established inand specializing in molecular genetic testing.

RGCS is driven to offer the public and healthcare providers the most advanced genetic testing services to ensure precise and personalized medicine. The company offers an extensive menu of highly complex genetic testing in the domains of reproductive genetics, cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics and wellness genetic testing. As we enter the age of genomic medicine, molecular diagnostic will merge with mainstream healthcare and its utility will play a major role in many settings, such as prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing, risk assessment for familial cancer and the diagnosis of many monogenic and multigenic disorders.

The complete bench of all new Ion Semi-conductor based next-generation sequencers NGS in our lab gives unmatched speed, affordability and accuracy required for all your molecular genetic testing.

Atomized robotic workflows with Ion Chef System provides consistent Quality. Department of Genetics. Our main services Daisy Non Invasive Prenatal Test Available for Pregnant Moms from 10 weeks of Gestation, with Zero risk of Miscarriage Prenatal Screening Modern methods of biochemical analysis, especially in combination with genetic and biomarker testing, are able to provide a comprehensive answer to reveal early the cause of a disease.

There are a variety of noninvasive and invasive techniques available for prenatal diagnosis like Chorionic villus sampling, Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, Aminocentesis etc. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Chromosome analysis from product of conception for recurrent pregnancy loss. Genetic Counselling Genetic counselling is a communication process, which aims to help individuals, couples and families understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, familial and reproductive implications of the genetic contribution to specific health conditions.

This next-generation sequencing test offered for men with, or at risk of prostate cancer. Performed on a blood sample. Our Doctors Dr. Sreelatha Nair Genetics Book an Appointment.Members of this race lived by hunting and by gathering plants and fruits. These people have dark skin and tightly curled brown hair and are less than 1.

Descendants of this race still inhabit the mountain regions of the state. They have a good knowledge of herbal medicine and were skilled in interpreting natural phenomena.

These belonged to the same race as the present-day Australian Aborigines. They represented a race of medium height, dark in some cases black complexion with long heads and flat noses. They laid the foundation of They introduced the cultivation of rice and vegetables and made sugar from sugarcane. They introduced snake-worship in Kerala. Dravidians: By B.

kerala genetics

The Dravidians are the ancestors of majority of the present day Malayalees. They absorbed many of the beliefs of the Negrito and Austric people, but they were strongly inclined to the worship of the Mother Goddess in all her myriad forms: Protector, Avenger, Bestower of wealth, wisdom and arts.

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Aryans: After the Dravidians came the Aryans who had already settled over northern India from the Mesopotamian region. They migrated to south India during circa B. The "white" or fair-skinned Brahmins belonged to this stock. By the advent of Aryans, caste system also formed in Kerala.

The Aryans have made a deep impression on Kerala in late proto-historic times. Today, Kerala population is the melting pot of various races, religions and ethnic groups. The vast majority of Keralites carry three racial strains in their genetic make-up; Munda, Dravidian, and Aryan.

Of this, majority of today's Keralites have a Dravidian ancestry. Nevertheless, many of them pride themselves on their Aryan descent. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race.Genetics is the branch of science emerged at the beginning of the 20th century.

It influences almost all areas of life like diagnosis, therapeutic and food production. So he is considered as the father of Genetics. Unravelling Genetic Mysteries Question 1.

What are the traits that were experimented by Mendel? Answer: The traits that were experimented by Mendel.

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Guru Plant Genetic Question 2. Which trait of the pea plant was considered in these experiments?

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Answer: Height of the pea plant was considered as the trait in this experiment. Unravelling Genetic Mysteries Question 3. What variant forms of the trait are considered here? Answer: Tall and dwarf are the variant forms of the trait considered here. Guru Plant Genetic Question 4. Which forms of the trait was expressed in the first generation? Answer: Tall is the trait was expressed in the first generation. Biology Chapter 6 Question 5. The following illustration showing hybridization experiment in pea plants using symbols for the factors that control traits.

Answer: Peculiarities of offsprings in the second generation Mendel self-pollinated the plants obtained in the first generation and produced the second generation. Among the plants obtained in the second generation, plants were tall and plants were dwarf.

The ratio of the result obtained is about Question 6. Complete the table Answer: a Axial b c Round d Gene — Allele: The gene present in the chromosome of the nucleus determines the character. A gene that controls a trait has different forms. The different forms of a gene are called alleles. Generally, a gene has two alleles. Biology Chapter 6 Question 7.

Which are the alleles of a tall plant? Question 8. Which are the alleles of the dwarf planets? Question 9. How do the allele combination of the first generation differ from parental plants?

One character is expressed and the other character remains hidden in the offsprings. Kerala Genetics Question This Idukki landrace is a true tropical Sativa-type strain, ranging between 2 and 4 metres tall, with characteristic bamboo-like leaflets.

Buds are loose and resinous with minty, peppery, and fruity aromas, yielding a smooth, sweet smoke.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 Unravelling Genetic Mysteries

Traditionally, farmers have favoured a later harvest. This recent accession has exhibited exceptionally early maturing variants that can be ready by early November. The morphology of the plants does not suggest hybrid contamination, and neither does the aroma. The fast finish appears to be the result of decades of pressure from eradication programs, which have caused farmers to keep seeds from early plants. Standout individual plants of this landrace show great potency and will have the characteristic elevating Idukki effect.

A recent test reported Modest quantities of THCV were present.

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Mid- to high-teens THC is typical for this strain. NOTE: This batch of seeds is the second generation from the original accession and has been reproduced ex-situ through open pollination. Cut on November 6th. Other strains got hit by powdery mildew.

Kerala Caste Community and Religion history

Idukki landrace. Kerala quantity. Kerala landrace strain, Idukki, Kerala landrace strain, date unknown. Kerala landrace outdoors in Hawaii. Additional information Pack size 12 seeds, 5 seeds.

Choose an option 12 seeds 5 seeds Clear.Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia is the study of the genetics and archaeogenetics of the ethnic groups of South Asia.

It aims at uncovering these groups' genetic history. The geographic position of South Asia makes its biodiversity important for the study of the early dispersal of anatomically modern humans across Asia. Recent genome studies appear to show that most South Asians are descendants of two major ancestral components, one restricted to South Asia Ancestral South Indianderiving from IVC -people and a native South Asian population possibly distantly related to the Andamanese and the other component Ancestral North Indian derived from IVC-people and Steppe-people, making it more closely related to those in Central AsiaWest Asia and Europe.

It has been found that the ancestral node of the phylogenetic tree of all the mtDNA types mitochondrial DNA haplogroups typically found in Central Asia, the West Asia and Europe are also to be found in South Asia at relatively high frequencies.

The inferred divergence of this common ancestral node is estimated to have occurred slightly less than 50, years ago. These mitochondrial haplogroups' coalescence times have been approximated to date to 50, BP. All these six founder haplogroups can be found in the present day populations of South Asia. Endicott et al. The predominant majority genome markers of South Asians are all closely related to West Eurasians and may have either originated in Western Asia or South Asia itself.

Arguing for the longer term "rival Y-Chromosome model", [12] Stephen Oppenheimer believes that it is highly suggestive that India is the origin of the Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups which he calls the "Eurasian Eves".

According to Oppenheimer it is highly probable that nearly all human maternal lineages in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe descended from only four mtDNA lines that originated in South Asia 50,—, years ago.

People of Kerala

The M macrohaplotype in India includes many subgroups that differ profoundly from other sublineages in East Asia especially Mongoloid populations. These deep rooting lineages are not language specific and spread over all the language groups in India. The absence of haplogroup M in Europeans, compared to its equally high frequency among South Asians, East Asians and in some Central Asian populations contrasts with the Western Eurasian leanings of South Asian paternal lineages. Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans.

A very old and most important subdivision of it is haplogroup U that, while also present in West Eurasiahas several subclades specific to South Asia. Most important South Asian haplogroups within R: [21]. Haplogroup U is a sub-haplogroup of macrohaplogroup R.

H is today rarely found outside of the South Asia but is common among the Romanisparticularly the H-M82 subgroup. H was also quite common in ancient samples of Europe and is still found today at a low frequency in Europeans and Arabs of the Levant.

Haplogroup H is believed to have arisen in South Asia between 30, and 40, years ago. It seems to represent the main Y-Chromosome haplogroup of the paleolithic inhabitants of South Asia. Some individuals in South Asia have also been shown to belong to the much rarer subclade H3 Z For example, H is possessed by about Haplogroup J2 reflects presence from neolithic period in South Asia. In Pakistanthe highest frequencies of J2-M were observed among the Parsis at J2-M is found at an overall frequency of According to Dr.

Haplogroup L shows time of neolithic expansion.Home Our Centres of Excellence. The Genetics Department of the Lifeline Hospital, which was established inprovides the cutting edge technology and most advanced treatment options to parents worldwide. The Hospital has introduced revolutionized genomic treatment, the Next Generation Sequencing technology.

Next Generation Sequencing for Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is cost effective and best with reduced errors. The tests carried out include Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD for the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation and the pre- implantation genetic screening PGSfor testing the overall chromosomal normalcy in embryos.

RGCS Reproductive Genetics and Cancer Solutions attached to the Lifeline Hospital is a state-of-the-art molecular diagnostic laboratory established inand specializing in molecular genetic testing.

kerala genetics

RGCS is driven to offer the public and healthcare providers the most advanced genetic testing services to ensure precise and personalized medicine. The company offers an extensive menu of highly complex genetic testing in the domains of reproductive genetics, cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics and wellness genetic testing.

As we enter the age of genomic medicine, molecular diagnostic will merge with mainstream healthcare and its utility will play a major role in many settings, such as prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing, risk assessment for familial cancer and the diagnosis of many monogenic and multigenic disorders.

The complete bench of all new Ion Semi-conductor based next-generation sequencers NGS in our lab gives unmatched speed, affordability and accuracy required for all your molecular genetic testing. Atomized robotic workflows with Ion Chef System provides consistent Quality. Our main services Daisy Non Invasive Prenatal Test Available for Pregnant Moms from 10 weeks of Gestation, with Zero risk of Miscarriage Prenatal Screening Modern methods of biochemical analysis, especially in combination with genetic and biomarker testing, are able to provide a comprehensive answer to reveal early the cause of a disease.

There are a variety of noninvasive and invasive techniques available for prenatal diagnosis like Chorionic villus sampling, Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, Aminocentesis etc. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Chromosome analysis from product of conception for recurrent pregnancy loss. Genetic Counselling Genetic counselling is a communication process, which aims to help individuals, couples and families understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, familial and reproductive implications of the genetic contribution to specific health conditions.

This next-generation sequencing test offered for men with, or at risk of prostate cancer. Performed on a blood sample.The population of KeralaIndia is a heterogenous group that comprises many ethnic groups that originated in other parts of India as well as the world, with distinctive cultural and religious traditions.

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While the majority of Keralans speak the Malayalam languagevarious ethnic groups may speak other languages as well. The racial and ethnic history of Kerala is highly controversial and disputed among the cultural anthropologists, historians and other scholars.

kerala genetics

The people of Kerala, known as Malayali people speaking Malayalam languageare polygenetic and belong to different ethnic groups and religions. The Census of India does not recognise racial or ethnic groups within India.

Malayalis are the native people of Kerala who speak Malayalam, the official language of the state. The Malayalam language is a Dravidian language possibly related to Tamil which crystallised into a distinctive tongue only at the beginning of the medieval era.

Similar to other major languages, modern Malayalam includes loanwords from PortugueseArabicSyriacand in more recent times English.

According to the Indian census ofthere were 28, speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up Many speak the distinctive Mappila dialect of Malayalam. Historically, there have been frequent migrations between Kerala and the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu.

The history of ancient Kerala itself is deeply intertwined with Tamil Nadu's ancient past, and the Tamil and Malayalam languages are closely related. The dialect of Tamil spoken today in the district of Palakkad in Kerala has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has been influenced by Malayalam syntax and also has a distinct Malayalam accent.

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Some of the earliest migrations attested by history were those of Iyers from the Cauvery delta to the district of Palakkad. The first of these migrations are believed to have taken place over five hundred years ago. These Iyers settled in Palakkad where they owned land and led an affluent existence till the enactment of the land reforms in the s.

They followed many Malayali practices include the practice of sambandham. There have also been migrations of Iyers to the princely state of Travancore from the Tirunelveli district during the 18th and 19th centuries.

kerala genetics

These Iyers are called Kerala Iyers and differ significantly from Palakkad Iyers in their language and social status. Some of Travancore's diwans were Tamil Brahmins.

Apart from Iyers, many other Tamil communities also migrated to Kerala between the 18th and the 20th century when the southernmost Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu was a part of the Travancore kingdom. The capital of the Travancore kingdom which ruled over most of Kerala was located in Padmanabhapuram in present-day Tamil Nadu.

The caste system in Kerala is very similar to that which exists in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Kerala is also the home to a sizable population of Sri Lankan Tamils who arrived as refugees as a result of the Sri Lankan civil waras well as Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka who were displaced due to the Ceylon Citizenship Act. The latter number close to 10, and are mainly found in eastern parts of the Kollam district where they work in rubber plantations under the Government of Kerala 's initiative Rehabilitation Plantations Limited.

They are prominently found in places including Erattupetta, Pala, Ponkunnam, Kanjirappalli, Thodupuzha, and Pathanamthitta. Similarly, Tamil Muslims migrated the same route from Madurai to the regions of Thodupuzha, Irattupetta, and Pathanamthitta.

They are distinct from Malayalam speaking Mappila Muslims in many ways including the usage of a dialect of Tamil inside their houses. Shivalli Brahmins living all over the Indian state of Kerala are part of the larger Tulu Brahmin subsect primarily found in the Indian state of Karnataka but also in the Kasaragod district and Kannur of Northern Kerala.

Their mother tongue is the Tulu language. Kannada is one of the major languages of Indiaspoken predominantly in the state of Karnataka.

The Kannada people number roughly 50 million, making it the fifteenth-most spoken language in the world. Kannada is also an administrative language in the district.


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